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Perkins Gilman's and Carter's divergent internalizations of the feminist movement will also be discussed. After deconstructing concepts of self and items of culture, the multiplicity of perspectives and of cultures are realized, but no new conception is left. Thus, we are left with no new modes of conceptualization and fall back upon existing concepts within modernity. Specifically, I wish to concentrate upon the way in which the homosexual male is partitioned into certain avenues of accessing the "post"-ish and classic culture and theory.

Through an analysis of the ideas and functions of classic masculinity, the assumptions and exclusions of feminist theory, and the new conceptions of the gay male in "postmodern" and modern cinema specifically the modern remake of Romeo and Juliet, plus other recent releases , I hope to propose some ways that ideological concepts have alienated homosexual men from conceptions of themselves. How does the "cult of masculinity" effect homosexual men and their expressions of sexuality; how does the theoretical structures within the feminist movement, which concentrated heavily upon the importance of lesbian feminism, exclude homosexual men from avenues of progressive change; how does the imagery of the homosexual man in modern culture exclude and partition him into certain roles that limit his conception of self; and how does postmodern theory alienate the homosexual man from an image based upon the rejection of dominate values?

As a friend of mine said about postmodernism, "I'm a little wary of it because it discounts the power of sexual radicalism.


These accounts vary greatly in emphases and intents, but all furnish a momentary foray into a reality controlled solely by heroin. Two such works are Naked Lunch and Trainspotting. Naked Lunch attacks the problem of addiction as a model for structures of control and dominance. Trainspotting , on the other hand, approaches heroin use as a means to withdraw from a society rejected by the user.

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By exploring these different methods, I will outline the fictional junkie's world and how, despite their various strategies, both works arrive at a similar conclusion concerning hope for change and the future. It changes a person's perception of reality, through hallucinations and delusions. A person with schizophrenia often thinks that he or she has special psychic powers. After the patient found out that he is ill, he lives in a world where he is no longer sure of what is real and what is not.

Wu Wei: Ancient Secrets to Effortless Living - Tea Time Taoism

But when we talk about reality, do we really know the truth about what's happening, much less what happened in the past? In The Castle , Kafka writes: "The Castle hill was hidden, veiled in mist and darkness, nor was there even a glimmer of light to show that a castle was there. Indeed, the whole novel revolves around the question of how to trace something to its origin, to ascertain its truth and reality.

Erlebnis is the experience of the moment which retains no trace as time moves on while erfahrung is the experience that is retained and is eternal.

The Frankfurt School and Postmodern Philosophy

According to Benjamin, this latter type of experience is gained through storytelling. Thus, can we really expect a writer to be able to write anything else other than stories because he is an unfolded piece of story himself? We learn from Saussure A Course in General Linguistics that the exact meaning of a word doesn't matter, what matters is the contrast between different words.

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Thus it's no wonder that it's impossible to exact the author's intention Annabel Patterson and that languages is the cause of the death of the author? Jacques Lacan "Ecrit: A Selection" illustrates the situation as a string of rolling beads: words continually take on different meanings.

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  • Aren't we, who try to find meaning in or to get to the bottom of things, the schizophrenics who try to distinguish between what is real and what is not? The external world became changed as in a dream. Objects appeared in relief; they assumed unusual dimensions; and colors became more glowing. Even self-perception and the sense of time were changed. When the eyes were closed, colored pictures flashed past in a quickly changing kaleidoscope.

    After a few hours, the not unpleasant inebriation, which had been experienced whilst I was fully conscious, disappeared.

    What had caused this condition? It is unnatural. It can hurt you. Discovered just a little over fifty years ago, LSD has been accused of being a dangerous drug more damaging than heroin. Yet, it has also been called enlightening and mind expanding.

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    • Could it be that our conventional understanding is erroneous? A search for alternative explanations of how the drug works as well as a consideration of alternative realities and perceptions will strive to re-examine our current conception of reality. This paper considers the effects of both the style and content of Burroughs' method in print and film on modern music's identity.

      His unique manipulations through the cut-up method have specifically influenced the Industrial music genre. Through a close reading and analysis of Burroughs' work as well as the work of several modern Industrial bands including Trent Reznor's Nine Inch Nails, Skinny Puppy and The Revolting Cocks, I will discuss the influence of Burrough's work in Industrial music's seemingly chaotic form, graphic content, and nihilistic message.

      Parallels can also be seen in the reception of these works, as evident in the fight to censor Naked Lunch , and the censoring of the Closer video. I will conclude by discussing the reasons for Burroughs' and Industrial's influence and its significance to the identity of the youth which embraces it. For the first 50 years after the story was written, people debated whether it was one of the most frightening ghost stories of all time, or tale of a woman who goes insane. Over fifty years after the story was written, some critics insisted that the story could not be interpreted -- that no interpretation is worthwhile, and the only thing that really matters is the act of reading it.

      I plan to defend modern critics of the story over postmodern ones, and I intend to show that in this particular case, one interpretation that it is a ghost story is more accurate than other proposed readings. The experiences people have throughout their lives create within each individual the lines drawn between normality and aberrance. If these lines are the same as, or at least close to, those drawn by society, the individual is in luck.

      If, however, the lines of normality drawn by an individual conflict with the unwritten laws of normality by which society runs, the individual is prone to mistreatment and even persecution. In essence, the confines of normality support those who conform and suffocate those who rebel.

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      Utilizing Foucault's and other authors' scholarship, I will discuss how laws governing sexual behavior represent the dissemination of power throughout society. Furthermore, I will discuss the "so-called" proper relation between the body and sexual desires, and how laws governing sexual behavior rectify political structures. Essentially, I want to unpack the meaning and hidden power that exists in sexuality and the politics governing out bodies. In my paper, I dispute this notion, pointing out why humor is certainly not a lower form of literature, and moreover, how absolutely invaluable it is.

      This paper addresses the issue of how comedy functions in literature, and how that relates to identity. Most importantly, I point out how jokes offer the possibility of saying things that are unthinkable in "serious" literature. The paper discusses comedy as a means of opening up taboo topics and also as a source of liberation for most characters. Humor, or attempts at humor not always effective , tend to be deemed as inappropriate or somewhat shocking at many times, either by other characters or even the reader.

      This is often because they make fun of what are generally considered very serious topics or problems. In my paper, I show how humor, while making fun of serious problems, often works as a means of coping with, or even just talking about painful or difficult topics, when otherwise this would be impossible, and also how these jokes sometimes work to further power struggles, or even change power positions, as a source of liberation for many characters. Ultimately, jokes, parody and satire work to free us from conventions in interesting, if sometimes dangerous, ways.

      As evidence of these ideas, I've chosen several works which illustrate my points. I also plan to incorporate the ideas of scholars in the field, such as Professor Jim Kincaid and Sigmund Freud. Cloud Nine plays with both gender and racial roles, switching them around as twisting out notions of these roles until they begin to seem almost arbitrary, and not as set as we generally deem them to be. I've chosen to use it to point out the effectiveness of comedy and satire in this case as social commentary.

      In The Cement Garden by Ian McEwan, the narrator uses a "joke," though ineffective, to liberate himself from his father's position of power. I use this novel to point out how jokes and humor contribute to the development of identity, especially in relation to power -- i.

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      In it, the jokes often address the most cruel and taboo of topics death, child abuse, and a plethora of other family problems. While the comedy is painful, it is also a means of dealing with topics that seemingly can't be discussed otherwise. I plan to use these works in accordance with the works of scholars in the field of humor and literature, and attempt to identify why exactly we use humor, and what its function is in literature. Also, I plan to prove just how important comedy is in opening up typically taboo subjects for conversation and how that helps in the development of identity, the changes in power positions, and as a source of liberation.

      Valdemar and Calvino's Cosmicomics.

      The Frankfurt School and Postmodern Philosophy

      While Poe uses science to limit the supernatural events in his story, Calvino uses science as a base for his extraordinary and mythical tales. The attitude shift from science as a limit to science as a gateway to extraordinary events came with postmodern thought. This shift can be identified in critical interpretations of the stories and books such as The Third Culture which examine the relationship between art and science.